Monday, May 4, 2015

Literature Blog #5- Bibliography & Scholarly Sources


Arlie Russel Hochschild “The Managed Heart”
(book-- it came up on Rutgers Library Database so I took it as scholarly)

Bagnulo, Angela. "Cheerleading injuries: A narrative review of the literature" Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association (2012): 292-298. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

Kane, Mary Jo “Media Coverage of the female athlete Before, During, and After Title IX: Sports Illustrated Revised” Journal of Sports Management, 2, 87-99 (1988) 03, May, 2015

Liguori, Jacqueline R. "Sticking The Landing: How the Second Circuit's Decision in Biediger V. Quinnipiac Univ. Can Help Competitive Cheerleading Achieve "Sport" Status Under Tittle IX" Jefferey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal Vol. 21 p.153) (2014): 153-183. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

Sack, Allen. Staurowsky, Ellen. "College Athletes For Hire" Praguer. (1998):  Web. 07 Apr. 2015.


BOUDWAY, IRA. "Who Do We Under-Compensate?." Bloomberg Businessweek 4394 (2014): 62-65. Business Source Premier. Web. 7 Apr. 2015.

Louis, Lauren. “Rutgers Cheer 2014-2015 Rules”

Walsh, Meghan, “I Trusted “em: When NCAA Schools Abandon Injured Athletes” The Atlantic

Young, Katie. CNBC. “College Athletes deserve to be Paid: Joe Theismann”

Zoffinger, Christine. “Rutgers University Spirit Squad Constitution 2014-2015”

Thursday, April 30, 2015

Research Blog #8: Interview

Research Blog #8: Interview

I interviewed Farris Cunningham, a current sophomore at Rutgers University who was recruited from Houston Texas on a full scholarship. I learned many insights to the lives of student athlete that are commonly unknown to the average college student. Farris is an engineer, and through our 2 year friendship I can vouch that she does not fit the statistic of an individual who has allowed herself to use her rigorous practice schedule as an excuse to choose an easy academic pathway. Although, I have witnessed first hand how her overwhelming practice and game schedule has put her academics in risk where she then had to work harder than the average student to stay ahead. From discussing the differences in our requirements I did learn how Tennis did require a significant more amount of hours per week and stress than my cheerleading schedule. But, part of these hours required athletic training and study hours with tutors- events that can be argued to help the student athlete rather than hurt. I believe the opportunity to a tutor and the requirement to set aside certain hours would help cheerleaders. "As a student-athlete on a full scholarship, I believe that we deserve scholarships for all of the work we put into our sports. We have to maintain a full school schedule while spending time exhausting ourselves at practice, tutoring, random meetings, film, matches, etc. the list goes on and on. We sacrifice time spent studying, sleeping, and going out with friends to excel in our sport because we want to represent the university well."
"After becoming friends with cheerleaders at Rutgers, I have realized the similarities between collegiate athletics and cheer. I think it's ridiculous that the cheerleaders have to pay to be on a team where they devote their time to the university. They, like athletes, miss school for traveling and have practices that take away from their academics." 

Literature Blog #4

 Literature Blog #4


  1. Citation MLA Format:

    Sack, Allen. Staurowsky, Ellen. "College Athletes For Hire" Praguer. (1998):  Web. 07 Apr. 2015.

  2. Summary:
  3. The article explores how the rigorous schedule of an athlete and the control their coaches have over their lives lead to negative effects on their physical and mental health, and also academically. The case explored why student athletes believe they are being used as employees for the university rather than athletes and therefore have brought lawsuits for compensation. The article shows how since their lives often revolve, or more dramatically- depend upon, doing well in their sport which makes everything else take a back seat. Injuries and academic failures are amongst these things that they often sacrifice. It is shown how schools often make accepting to GPA and SAT scores of rising star athletes. The NCAA then put in place a law that required the athlete to have at least a 1.6 GPA to be eligible to be accepted and play. Statistics from many studies were used to show how student athletes believed the time required towards their sport mandated that their academics suffered. It then went back to how the pressures from the coaches to exceed in their sport over school played a significant part in their mindsets. Their room, tuition, meal plans, etc. were dependent on their scholarship which required them to focus on the sport.

  4. Author
  5. Allen Sack and Ellen Staurowsky are both the authors of "College Athletes for Hire". The development of their argument makes them credited on the topic. They arrived at all their facts through fact patterns that explained the decision of the systems involved. Sack and Staurowsky balance legal facts and opinionated claims, it proves that their theories were arrived from statistical research. They include several studies concluding with percentages, and specific monetary income for parties involved.

  6. Key terms

  7. Quid Quo Pro- this term is defined as "means an exchange of goods and services, where one is contingent upon the other". Our society is often based upon this idea- the feeling that if one does something then they deserve something in return. This implies to the main idea of my paper because it is an argument proving that in order to ensure a fair relationship the University must give the cheerleaders something in return for all that they do for the University.
  8. Division 1 Athletes - the article showed statistical differences of how athletes in Division 1 are effected more strongly by the negative pressures of the coach. Playing a college sport at a Division 1 level means paying for a revenue-producing industry that is on the rise. The coaches have higher risks which is transferred to the athletes. Division 1 athletes also get more personal pressure as they are the division that the Professionals most likely will draft from. 

  1. "As an athletic trainer has noted, "the manager of sport ask the athlete to change diet. They ask the athlete to change patterns of weight loss and gain. They ask the athlete to run anaerobic training patterns. They ask the athlete to play with injury.  They ask the athlete to think certain kinds of things, to behave in certain ways."(Page 88)

    "It should be added that in some sports, athletes are asked to risk serious injury everyday" (page 88)

    "The court was clearly suggesting that the athletic scholarship took the form of a quid pro quo when it came to the issue of the payment of wages." (page 89)

    "Athletic scholarships pay for the services of the finest athletes in the country..... Athletic scholarships have become employment contracts" (page 91)

    "Many college students work while they are attending college. But few jobs are as demanding or distracting as revenue-producing college sports. An added problem for college athletes is that the fact that they are doing is virtually full-time employment." (page 91)

    "Some college administrators and sport officials feel strongly that an athletic scholarship is more than enough compensation for the services that athletes provide." (Page 93)

    "Nonetheless, in a free enterprise system that allows college coaches and their families to be shown visiting famous resorts and sipping fancy champagne in horse-drawn carriages, all at Nike's expense, it is hard to justify why the income of young athletes should be capped at only room, board, tuition, and related fees." (page 93)

    "When asked if coaches made demands on their time and energy that prevented them from being top students, Division 1 Athletes were again far more likely than athletes in the other divisions to answer yes" (page 100)

    The quote explaining the athletic trainer explaining all the ways the coaches control the actions of the athletes is reasons why they deserve something in return, and all the ways listed are also asked of cheerleaders by their coaches. The court defining the "quid quo pro" relationship of the football player and the university shows how it is common in a relationship that one deserves something of value back when they are giving something of value.
    The article proved how athletes have tried to prove that they can be seen as employees of the university - and the courts have agreed on some terms. Even if the case was not ruled in their favor, the court still recognized ways that they would qualify for compensation for being employees. This related to my paper because it proves that the work of an athlete, or cheerleader, has repeatedly been recognized on a legal level as an employee which can support my claims.
    The article then explores the pressure the coaches put on athletes to focus heavier on school than academics, this is supported by the time and energy they require from the player. The Rutgers Cheerleading contract outlines ways where the coaches also forces the cheerleaders to care less about academics- it actually says "not allowed to take class at times for practice" and says you are not allowed to miss practice for classes. Many cheerleaders have missed reviews for finals or midterms because of their schedule without any system put in place for them to still get a review. 

Tuesday, April 28, 2015

Literature Review Blog #3

 Literature Blog #3


  1. Citation MLA Format:

    Liguori, Jacqueline R. "Sticking The Landing: How the Second Circuit's Decision in Biediger V. Quinnipiac Univ. Can Help Competitive Cheerleading Achieve "Sport" Status Under Tittle IX" Jefferey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal Vol. 21 p.153) (2014): 153-183. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.
  2. HeinOnline (
  3. Summary:
  4. The article explained the purpose of Title IX- to protect sex-based discrimination within an institution receiving federal financial funding for "interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics. The law wanted to ensure that equal opportunities were being extended to males and females within the institution so they created a ratio that must be met. The ratio configured that a certain amount of athletic spots must be given to each sex based on the percentage that each sex made up of the institution. The Biedinger v. Quinnipiac took place with a civil suit was filed from a group of volleyball players and their coach in 2009 when the school announced plans of eliminated the team in order to create a varsity competitive cheerleading team. The Volleyball team won in pre-trial after they provided enough evidence of the harm that it would cause. The case caused it to be discovered that Quinnipiac had a disproportionate athletic opportunities for men and women under Title IX since some track women were doubling on teams- taking away opportunities for more women. With this evaluation, the competitive cheer team was able to deepen their case to viewed as a sport because they believed Quinnipiac was further violating the part of Title IX stating "effectictively accommodate the interests and abilities of both sexes". The court evaluated the sports nature of competitive cheer and decided it was similar by the way it was structured/administered, the team's preparation, the schedule of competition/practice times/ length of season, and that the purpose of it being competition also aligned. But they found it differed from being a "sport" under Title IX based on its lack of recruitment efforts, lack of uniform rules/regulation, and irregularities in season and post-season competition. The court deemed that competitive cheerleading would not qualify as a sport under Title IX, but did outline the changes needed for it to be able to classify. 

  5. Author
    The author of the article was Jacqueline Liguori. The article did not contain much of Liguori's personal opinions but rather helped simplify the decision of the Biediger v. Quinnipiac Univ. case. The author then related these decisions to why using these provisions cheerleading would not classify under Title IX.

  6. Key terms
  7. Title IX - A law passed in 1972 that's purpose was to prevent sex-based discrimination within educational institutions that received federal funding- specifically collegiate athletic programs. It helped put in place a statistics that colleges had to adhere to when funding women and men's athletic programs. It also set definitions of what would classify as a sport at the institution- which is the most important aspect relating to this article
  1. Biediger v. Quinnipiac Univ. - a case that several volleyball players and their coach brought against Quinnipiac when it planned to cut the volleyball team in order to fund the competitive cheerleading team. They won by the means of showing the court the "irreparable harm" that it would cause. However, this case forced the court to define if cheerleading would classify as a sport under IX- which was decided that it did not. However, it helped explain what changes could be made in order to allow it to classify.

  2. Competitive Cheerleading - the article takes a special interest in evaluating the functions of competitive cheerleading and comparing them to the restrictions of what Title IX defines as a "sport". The article explained why the court found the different aspects alike to a "varsity sport" or why they found it differed from the sports classification.


    "Cheerleading is no longer the stuff of Sandra Dee - it has become an athletic event" (page 153)

    "Despite the clear risk of injury and the athletic ability required for membership on a competitive cheerleading team, to some, including the Second Circuit, what these girls do is not yet a sport under Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972" (page  153)

    "The issue of whether cheerleading is a sport is one that is severely polarizing among sports authorities, athletes, and academic institutions. Cheerleading has evolved from a sideline sideshow to a competitive event that arguably exhibits levels of athleticism comparable to any other sport. Specifically, one of the major missing links for comparative cheerleading is the lack of recognition that is a sport under Tittle IX." (page 154)

    "the 3.62% disparity between female enrollment and female athletic opportunities demonstrated a failure to provide substantially proportionate athletic participation opportunities as required by Tittle IX" (page 157)

    "Title IX's goal is to prevent sex-based discrimination within those educational institutions receiving federal funding......'to provide equal athletic opportunity for members of both sexes"  (page 157)

    "whether the selections of sports and levels of competitions effectively accommodate the interests and abilities of members of both sexes... an equal treatment claim is present where there is a dispute as to the allocation of resources such as equipment, practices, and facilities" (page 158)

    "comparative cheerleading was generally structured and administered by Quinnipiac's athletics department in a manner consistent with the other school's varsity teams... team's preparation - including 'practice time, regimen, and venue' was similar to that of other varsity sports..... the competitive opportunities- including the number of competitions, the length of the season, and the presence of a governing body that dictated the competitive schedule- were similar to other varsity sports....the purpose of competitive cheerleading was competition, also like many other varsity sports" (page 171)

    "...court identified characteristics that set competitive cheerleading apart from other sports: the lack of recruitment efforts, the lack of a uniform set of rules that led to competition between varsity and non varsity competitors, and irregularities in season and post-season competition" (page 172)

    "Perhaps Biediger should not be seen as a setback, but as more of a blueprint for how to bring competitive cheerleading within the purview of Title IX" (page 178)

  2. Value. 
    The beginning quotes show how cheerleading has evolved to the sideline performance it once was into a competitive physical activity that would qualify it as a sport. It is important to recognize how the changes over the years has led to cheerleading deserving to now be seen in a different light.

  3. The article then defined the purpose of Title IX and how this could help classify cheerleading as a sport. One of the regulations is for similar opportunities of both sexes at a university. 

  4. The quotes tell how Biedinger v. Qunnipiac University was a case that was brought to the courts involving cutting the volleyball team in order to list the competitive cheer team as a squad. But, the volleyball team remained and the cheerleading team was not listed as a sport. The case shows how Quinnipiac disobeyed this regulation because after the Competitive Cheer Team demanded review for classifying as a sport it became relevant of athletes counting double on the track teams.

  5. The court then recognized ways how Competitive Cheerleading classified as a sport under Title IX and how it differed. These guidelines explained why the courts could not classify competitive cheerleading as a sport under Tittle IX.

  6. However, the author went on to explain how this could result in cheerleading eventually being classified as a sport by modifying the structure to eliminate the reasons the court stated stopped competitive cheerleading from classifying

Monday, April 27, 2015

Literature Blog #2

       Literature Blog #2

  1. Citation MLA Format:

    Bagnulo, Angela. "Cheerleading injuries: A narrative review of the literature" Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association (2012): 292-298. Web. 14 Apr. 2015.

  2. Summary: 
  3. The article was designed to show that with the increase in cheerleading growing the injury rates were also increasing since it still lacks a basic system to set safety regulations. The article used several studies to prove the amount of injuries that cheerleading is causing. The article first used a study to show how a sprained ankle was the most common injury, and even used statistics to show how high the risk of a sprained ankle for a cheerleader was. Since cheerleading is still an unrecognized sport the risk of injury is higher. The studies explain how the physical activities cause stress on particular ligaments and body parts that naturally lead to injury. The studies often make references to other sports that produce these same negative effects to the body. The NCAA refuses to recognize cheerleading as a sport. Statistics was also used to show how if cheerleading could be classified as a sport then it would help ensure safety for its participants because of the help the NCAA would then extend to them. The literature is an argumentative piece that is pushing for cheerleading to be recognized as a sport in order to help reduce the injuries of cheerleaders that are currently on the rise.

  4. Author
    The author of the article was Angela Bagnulo. It becomes apparent through her word choices that she believes that cheerleading should be recognized as a sport. However she makes no claims of having any personal experience that she draws these opinions from, instead she seems to draw her opinion from the facts if the studies that she presents. The logic behind Bagnulo's argument is that the physical activity of a cheerleader should classify them as a sport, and if it will reduce injuries then the NCAA should recognize them. Bagnulo dragged conclusions from several different studies which credited her in being knowledge on the topic.

  5. Key terms

  6. Injury - the entire article revolved around the amount, and different types of injuries that result from cheerleading. The statistics based on cheerleading's injuries was used to show the risks that cheerleaders take that are similar to other athletes. The amount of injuries and the severity of the injuries was the main focus in Bagnulo's argument. 

  7. Cheerleading - The article included many quotes that explained the responsibilities of cheerleaders, the physical activity that cheerleading entails, and how injuries result directly from what cheerleading requires an individual to do. The article also went in depth amount the different types of cheerleading - youth, high school, collegiate, and all star. By defining what cheerleading is the reader was able to understand how it is similar to what they use to define a "sport".

  8. NCAA - National Collegiate Athletic Association, showing how this organization helps protect athletes involved in "sports" by setting regulations was used to show how cheerleaders would be better protected if they could be recognized by the NCAA. The article explained the job of the NCAA and how it would benefit cheerleaders, but first cheerleading must be recognized as a sport. 


    "Few studies have looked at the more frequent and persuasive musculoskeletal injuries. This may be due in part to the lack of mandatory reporting in the sport." (page 293)

    "The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) was developed in 1906 to protect its athletes but cheerleaders are not included under this realm." (page 293)

    "a study by Thomas et al in 2004, demonstrated that the physical fitness of a cheerleader is similar to that of any other collegiate sport by comparing results on various physical tests (push-ups, V02 max, body composition, etc.)" (page 293)

    "Across all studies, the most common injury is an ankle sprain. Neck, lower back, knee and wrist sprains are also highly prevalent." (page 294)

    "The first study to investigate concussion in cheerleading reported a rate of 11.32 per 100,000 athlete exposures. This represents a rate of concussion at a North Carolina high school cheer practice, which was comparable to other sports team's rates during games, for example soccer and wrestling with respective rates of 19.91 and 15.96." (page 295)

    "Being under regulation of an athletic department will aid in injury prevention including mandarin qualified coaches, certified athletic trainers, number of spotters, restricting those who are less experienced from pyramids and basket tosses, and providing safer practice locations and times" (page 296)
    "A 40% decrease in injury has been shown when trained coaches are present" (page 296)

    "It is also known that catastrophic injuries are on the rise and suggestions on rule change and updates on regulations regarding stunt and surface restrictions seem reasonable. Unfortunately these recommendations may not be enforced until cheerleading is recognized for the sport that it is." (page 298)

  2. Value. 
    The quotes involving the statistical data and statement about ankles being damaged the most in cheerleading provide factual data to support that cheerleaders are at great risk of injury. It supports the idea that, like other sports, this activity commonly damages one's body. This can be used to support that it should be recognized by the NCAA as a sport.

  3. Based on the studies it has shown that injury can be reduced when restricted by regulations. The quotes show that if NCAA would choose to recognize cheerleading as a sport than it would significantly reduce the amount of injuries that cheerleading causes. The NCAA's neglecting of regulating cheerleading causes a substantial amount of injuries. The logic then is apparent that if the NCAA could help these young women protect their bodies by classifying cheerleading as a "sport" than it is unethical to continue to ignore them.

  4. The literature gives direct comparisons in how a cheerleader's risk in injury is similar to other sports classified under NCAA. It also proves how common injuries are among cheerleaders and explains how the NCAA could help this epidemic.

Tuesday, April 7, 2015

Literature Review Blog #1

       Literature Blog #1
  1. Citation MLA Format:

    BOUDWAY, IRA. "Who Do We Under-Compensate?." Bloomberg Businessweek 4394 (2014): 62-65. Business Source Premier. Web. 7 Apr. 2015.

  2. Summary:

    The article starts out as a personal story about an individual, Caitlin Ferrari, who became a a professional cheerleader for the Buffalo Bills and wound up being under-compensated by the team so strongly that she filed a lawsuit against them. The statistics went to show that Ferrari was one of 13 Current NFL Cheerleaders to file this claim in 5 different cities claiming that the NFL cheerleading teams violate minimum wage laws. The first girl who filed the lawsuit, Lacy T won the case against the NFL Raiders with the settlement of 1.25 million dollars for paying off the cheerleaders of the Raiders for the last 4 seasons. If the courts on a national level have sided with the under compensated cheerleaders for their underpay then this logic can be applied to college cheerleaders with student athletes benefits. At the core of this argument is the idea that the cheerleaders devote their time and efforts and are exploited by the NFL Football teams to gain revenue, but then are not given anything in return. The same unethical behavior happens on the collegiate level as cheerleaders promote the College Athletic teams that leads to benefits for the school and are also not compensated, or given benefits. The NFL makes enough money to compensate the NFL cheerleaders, just as major Universities have the means to extend the student athlete benefits to cheerleaders but selfishly choose not to. The Buffalo Bill Cheerleaders - "the Jills"- made a contract in 1967 with "Mighty Taco" that allowed the fast-food chain to use the Jills to promote their business, and to use them at events or send them out to other sponsors for in return they met the Bills' needs on the 8 Sundays a year. The court ruled in favor of the Jills being under compensated because "Mighty Taco" then made strict rules that the Jills must obey by that then constituted them into "employees". Statistics showed that in 2009 Ferrari  actually lost money as she was paid less than 100$ for the season while carrying the burden of covering the costs of traveling, 50 10$ Jill Calendars and the 650$ required uniform. The head of the Jills, Mateczum, claims that the Jills were about to be paid an amount that would meet the minimum wage requirement before the lawsuit was filed but took back this notion as fear that the legality of it would be used to say that they should have been paid all along. Instead, the squad was shut down altogether. The statistics showed that the revenue brought in by the NFL, or the Bills individually, can certainly afford to pay each of the cheerleaders if they had wished to do so.

  3. Author
    The article was written by Ira Boudway. Boudway's article is knowledgeable because it is an individual story told directly from an individual that was hurt by under compensation in NFL cheerleading- Caitlin Ferarri. The story is filed with direct quotes from Ferrari allotting factual statistics from her experience as a Bills Cheerleader. The fact that the New York Court agreed with her case that they are seen as employees by the law credits Caitlin's stories for Boudway. Boudway also proves his/her knowledge by proving statistical analysis of the financial revenue of the NFL altogether and individual teams. The statistical data proves that Boudway collected factual evidence to support his/her claims.

  4. Key terms

  5. "Eyes of the Law" - the connotation of the term itself allows the reader to understand that this is not just a personal debate, it is an issue that is argued with the rules of the law. The term is used to determine what the Courts classify as "a job" which then determines if the Professional Cheerleaders are underpaid. If they are seen as employees in the "eyes of the law" then the minimum wage standard will pertain to them, therefore causing them to win the case.

  6. "Minimum Wage Laws" - the Law put in force by the courts to protect American workers by paying an allotted minimum wage of money per hour. The violation of this law is what the NFL cheerleaders filed their cases on. The rules of their contracts  caused them to be pronounced employees, which therefore led the NFL teams to neglectfully being under-paying the cheerleaders because the hours the cheerleaders worked did not comply with the standards of the minimum wage laws.


    "As the plaintiffs pile on, fans are learning that the most powerful sports league in the U.S., with $9.7 billion in annual revenue, pays its sideline performers worse than the average birthday clown or barista."  (Page 63)

    "Gerovac and Mighty Taco, the agency ruled in 1995, controlled the Jills’ “rehearsal schedules, their cos- tumes, their routines, the time and places of their performances,” and required each to “maintain a specified weight.” This made the cheerleaders employees in the eyes of the law. " (Page 63)

    "Jills also bought and sold tickets—four per cheerleader at $125 each—to an annual golf fundraiser for the squad where, according to the group suit, they sat in dunk tanks, auctioned themselves off to ride on men’s laps in golf carts, and did gymnastic “flips for tips” that were kept by their employers." (Page 65)

    "League Commissioner Roger Goodell was paid $44 million in 2012. It would cost just $235,000 to pay every Bills cheerleader New York’s $8 hourly minimum wage for 20 hours per week for 42 weeks per year, from tryouts in April through the Super Bowl. That works out to less than one one-thousandth of the Bills’ estimated $252 million in revenue. At its most expensive, the bill for an hourly minimum wage for every NFL cheerleader would be about $7.6 million per season, less than a fifth of the $40 million the Dallas Cowboys spent on a 160-foot. ( page 65) .....
    "According to Front Row’s analysis, cheerleaders appear on-screen for an average of seven seconds during broadcasts, usually on the way to and from commercial breaks. That may not seem like much airtime, but according to Smallwood, it’s worth $8.25 million per season, or more than $317,000 per year for each of the 26 teams with squads last year. screen in 2009."(Some cold-weather fran- chises do not have cheerleaders.) A sponsorship patch measur- ing 4 inches by 4 inches on every dancer’s top, Smallwood says, should sell for about $150,000 per year." (page 65)

  8. Value. 

    The idea that the NFL is paying part of their system so poorly goes along with how much money the NCAA and schools are making on the football and basketball teams but are not extending any of the revenue to the Spirit Squads, even though they are out on the field and being watched as well. It can give the name of the school a negative reputation in the eyes of the public.

    I will use the terms and conditions of the "Rutgers Cheerleading 2015 Contract" that sets regulations similar to the guidelines that "Mighty Taco" gave the Jills to show that Rutger's cheer regulations would then portray cheerleader's as employees in the "eyes of the law.

     The cheerleaders were directly used by the NFL to gain revenue through their time and job description but then did not receive any of the money that they essentially earned. University Cheerleaders are paid by sponsors to appear at events which the Spirit Program does not directly get the revenue for, or is used on the cheerleaders (not used to compensate cheerleaders nor is it used to obtain school benefits for the cheerleaders). This example is a great way to show how the responsibilities and time given by cheerleaders produces compensation for the organization and there should then be a liability on the organization to reward the individuals responsible for obtaining the revenue. 

    Statistics proving that the NFL certainly has the means to pay the cheerleaders minimum wage for all that they do for the teams. The same would prove to be true if we looked at that statistics of major Football and Basketball teams, specificially in the Big 10. It supports the argument that the schools have the means to extend student athlete privileges to cheerleaders but choose not to. 

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Research Blog #4 - Proposal

Working Title: Demand for Benefits

Topic: I will explore the unfairness towards Cheerleading not being recognized as a Sport by Universities, or more specifically by Rutgers University. I will argue for why cheerleaders deserve to receive benefits that other Student athletes are currently receiving by exposing how they have similar responsibilities and obligations to the school. I will explain how the school uses the cheerleaders to their advantage by requiring them to be present at school sporting events for support or sponsor events that gains revenue for the school. The idea of the argument is to expose how the school is using an individual (a cheerleader) to benefit the school while not compensating them by any means in return.
Research Question: How does the school justify giving benefits and scholarships to student athletes but not the cheerleading team? If cheerleaders are used to promote and gain revenue for the school in the same way the other sports teams do then why are they not considered student athletes?
Theoretical Frame: I recognize that cheerleading is often debated by society if it should qualify to be recognized as a sport. My paper is not intended to argue how the actual physical action of cheerleading should qualify as a sport. Instead I am showing how the responsibilities and duties that college cheerleaders have are identical to those recognized as student athletes. Just like college athletes Cheerleaders at this university have a GPA requirement to obtain, timely required practices, mandatory school events, injury risks, a signed agreement acknowledging one could be kicked off if they partake in forbidden activities, etc. I will use the written document that the cheerleaders of Rutgers University were required to pay and compare it to the similarities it has with the contracts of the student athletes at Rutgers. A rising topic in college sports of today is how athletes should not just receive benefits or scholarships but on top of that should also be paid for their work.
My argument for benefits goes further than being basedbase upon the time and work, there is also an emotional labor that I believe should be encountered for.  The argument’s used in the articles explaining why athletes deserve compensation can also be applied to why cheerleaders deserve compensation, or at least the benefits already being received by the student athletes. While advocating for compensation for arguments many articles support their claims by exposing all the athletes do for the school and how the university gains revenues based on them. I will give direct examples from the articles fighting for student athlete pay to show that the responsibilities that they are saying entitles student athletes for pay are the same responsibilities that the cheerleaders carry.  If  the duties being used to argue for compensation for athletes are the same duties as cheerleaders then how can it be ignored that they do not receive benefits? A direct example is the article “I Trusted ‘Em: When NCAA Schools Abandon Their Injured Athletes” touching on how student athletes risk their safety and how it should be the schools responsibility to take care of them even when injured. The article about concussions show how cheerleaders are risking their lives as well, especially after it has been exposed the increase in concussions in cheerleaders. The Managed Heart” by Arlie Russel Hochschild it analyzes how emotional work that is part of the service society that implies to the jobs of cheerleaders. As a cheerleader one is looked upon as a role model, and is also required to motivate and inspire the teams and student body with “spirit”. The psychology used in the story by Hochschild can be used to explain why the physical and emotional work of being a cheerleader may take a toll on a student or cause stress that could then affect them academically.
Case: To further support my claim I plan on using an example of how this issue is also a problem in society on a larger scale. In the article “Who Do We Under-Compensateit discusses how cheerleaders of major NFL teams have filed a class act against their cheer/dance squads for wage theft. The article discusses several cases where the cheerleader sued and won the case. The courts ruled inn their action because they recognized that the teams violated minimum age laws. The teams were requiring the times of these girls for practices and also using them in advertising and sponsoring events without compensating them for their time and efforts.  In other words, being a cheerleader for one of these NFL teams was similar to a job but they were not being paid as one is required to by law for their job. Rutgers University is requiring their cheerleaders to have responsibilities and act in ways that call upon their time just as the NFL cheerleaders were required to do. If the courts ruled in favor of the NFL cheerleaders I think that the University needs to recognize the thought process from the courts that explained why it was legally wrong not to compensate those cheerleaders and apply it to this situation.  In another direct example I will compare the cost to obtain student athletes while cross-examining the revenue that cheerleaders gain for Rutgers. For example, a member of the tennis team is on full scholarship meaning the university covers the cost of her food, living, tuition, book, tutors, sports gear, etc. Schools often justify paying for an athlete because it is then using that athlete to their advantage- such as gaining revenues through their matches. But how can the school justify this if the money gained for the school is less than the money they are spending on the scholarship? Meanwhile, the school often uses the cheerleaders to their advantage by sending us to events that sponsors and alumni pay for our appearances. But, the cheerleaders do not receive this compensation or even receive benefits that the school could easily give such as personal trainers, tutors, or class preferences.